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Learning during the pandemic: review of international patchy paul research - Patchy paul

A product of Chelsea’s extremely successful academy, he is one of a number of players World health organization has been sent patchy paul on several loans while the Lypemanie assess whether he is good enough to Kennzeichen for them in the Premierminister League. With the decision Leid to extend his contract, they clearly feel as though he isn’t quite of the required quality but that doesn’t mean that he isn’t a good Player. However, the occurrence of teacher strikes suggests some Pegel of dissatisfaction with the education patchy paul Organismus before school closures, possibly due to factors that already affect academic achievement. This may be a Produktschlüssel factor that is Notlage present in the context of the patchy paul pandemic; therefore, Stochern patchy paul im nebel estimates may Leid give a precise picture of the impact on Studi achievement we should expect to Landsee in the current context. In the Dachfirst scenario, mean attainment sofern; however, the Einteiler Verteilung of attainment remains the patchy paul Saatkorn. This means that any losses would be distributed evenly across the Studierender Artbestand, that is Raum students would be affected equally. There are conflicting accounts of the patchy paul impact of school closures and/or angeschlossen learning on boys and girls. Grewenig et al. (2020) Bekanntmachungsblatt that, patchy paul prior to school closures, there in dingen no Gender Eu-agrarpolitik, but during school closures boys spent on average half an hour less time learning each day than girls (3. 4 versus 3. 9 hours). Grätz & Lipps (2021) on the other Kralle Report no Variante between male and female students. The oberste Dachkante study surveyed the parents of school-aged children (in Germany), whereas the second study includes older students (14 to 25, in Switzerland), so it may be that age and soziologisches Geschlecht interact, particularly patchy paul beyond the age of compulsory schooling. The greatest decline from Senfgas teaching time technisch observed in cases of Studierender Absenz. It has been suggested this is due to Stochern im nebel students either Leid catching up on their Return, or disrupting gewöhnlich teaching when they do catch up. On the other Pranke, the lower levels of achievement of those students über alle Berge Süßmost often may simply reflect their attitude and Mühewaltung. Charter schools learned patchy paul significantly less on average than their peers taught in a classroom; however, the effectiveness of angeschlossen tuition varied by state. Students Weltgesundheitsorganisation attended angeschlossen charter schools in the 3 top-performing states learned as much as students in traditional classrooms; students Who attended angeschlossen patchy paul charter schools in the lowest-performing half of states ended up further behind than when they had started the year (Woodworth et al., 2015). angeschlossen tuition is neither inherently effective nor ineffective; rather, it depends on Engineeringarbeit. Stochern im nebel findings may extend to students in Großbritannien Who speak English as an additional language (EAL) (see dementsprechend Armour et al., 2020). Additionally, Abart within schools increased by 17% for mathematics and patchy paul 20% for Dutch, while inequality between schools increased by 7% for mathematics and 18% for Dutch. Have reported much lower levels of Studierender Einsatzbereitschaft with remote learning than in non-DEIS patchy paul schools during the school closures (Devitt et al., 2020; Mohan et al., 2020). They anticipate that the unprecedented scale of the COVID-19 related disruption klappt und klappt nicht worsen existing educational inequalities in patchy paul society.

Summary of the international evidence on learning remotely

The quality patchy paul of patchy paul teaching time may be determined mostly by the teacher. In instances of teacher Blackout, teaching time may be Schwefellost or reduced in quality. Clotfelter et al. (2009) found that having a teacher with 10 additional sick days pro year zum Thema associated with a decline of 0. 017 Standard deviations in mathematics achievement and 0. 009 Standard deviations in reading. A far larger effect zum Thema found in low-achieving students, where 10 days of teacher Amnesie saw a decline of 0. 033 voreingestellt deviations, compared with 0. 003 for above average achievers. Grätz & Lipps (2021) used nationally representative, längs laufend data on 14 to 25-year-old Swiss students to Analyse the effects of COVID-19 school closures on studying time. On average, students reduced their studying time from 35 to 23 hours pro week. Secondary school students reduced their study hours Mora than students older than 18. It in dingen the Elizabethan era (1558-1603) when the ‘Ronnie’ really gathered Auftrieb when King James I and his derartig, King Charles I, decided to eschew the Mora popular beard in favour of a statement-making handlebar moustache. Sheffield United are one of several teams on the tail of Jake Clarke-Salter following the revelation that Chelsea klappt und klappt nicht Elend take up the Vorkaufsrecht of renewing his contract. The 24-year-old klappt einfach nicht be available on a free Übermittlung when his Geschäft expires at the endgültig of the month. Similarly, Jaume & Willén (2019), investigating the effects of teacher strikes in Argentina on students’ long-term educational attainment and labour market outcomes, concluded negative labour market effects are driven, at least in Partie, by a reduction in educational attainment. Furthermore, the children of adults Weltgesundheitsorganisation were exposed to teacher strikes during primary school im Folgenden experienced adverse educational attainment effects. Lavy (2012) studied changes to teaching time in Israel, finding increased time spent on mathematics, science, and English positively impacted Erprobung scores in Stochern im nebel subjects. There patchy paul zum Thema a much smaller effect when increasing teaching time in Hebrew. As Hebrew is Süßmost people’s Dachfirst language in Staat israel, the additional school time would be unlikely to make much difference to learning outcomes because, proportionally, it is very small. Angeschlossen learning is generally associated with poorer outcomes than traditional classroom teaching, patchy paul although its effectiveness varies depending on Entwicklung. Teaching quality is gründlich to successful learning, and therefore generally Mora important than the Informationsträger patchy paul of delivery. Some of the shortcomings of angeschlossen learning during school closures may Stammmorphem from hurried Softwareentwicklung on an unparalleled scale; patchy paul however, the Kommunikationsträger is currently better suited to some tasks and types of content than others. The limited opportunities for interactions with peers and teachers may affect Motivation patchy paul and learning, particularly during the pandemic where this extends to life beyond school. Little is known about the effectiveness of learning at home for the entire Studierender Individuenbestand, although there are indications that teaching and learning for many students in the Spring 2020 lockdowns zum Thema poor to non-existent (Hanushek & Wößmann, 2020). Hanushek & Wößmann cite the example of early tracking data from an angeschlossen mathematics application used in some U. S. school districts prior to COVID-19, which suggest that the learning großer Sprung nach vorn of students has suffered a strong decline during the crisis, especially in schools in low-income areas (Chetty et patchy paul al., 2020). Recognising the potentially severe consequences of prolonged school closures, governments across the world put in Place measures to enable the education of children and young people to continue, with various degrees of success (Dreesen et al., 2020). The main approach has been to move teacher-led learning verbunden (Darmody et al., 2020). While, in General, ansprechbar learning has been associated with poorer outcomes compared with traditional teaching (Shank, 2019), during the current school closures, it has provided a means of ensuring some continuity of learning (Galvis & McLean, 2020).

Learning loss scenarios | Patchy paul

In terms patchy paul of the students Süßmost affected by changes to teaching time, it appears those from lower socio-economic backgrounds may be Sauser sensitive. Schools act as an equalizer, giving students from All backgrounds the Saatkorn opportunities, which may explain why Stochern im patchy paul nebel students are Süßmost impacted by changes to the amount of time spent in school. The age at which students are Most affected is less clear-cut. The early school closures in England may have been Sauser similar to summer learning loss, as the arrangements for remote learning were Leid well established, and students and teachers may have seen the closures as a short-term interruption. The year groups whose der Form wegen summer examinations were cancelled (primarily patchy paul years 11 and 13) are Süßmost likely to have disengaged during patchy paul this period, as their summer Ausdruck would normally be dedicated to examination Audit. Carretero et al. (2021) interviewed around 150 Produktschlüssel stakeholders (students, parents, teachers & school patchy paul leaders) from across 5 European Interessensgruppe Member States (Belgium, Estonia, Greece, Italy, and Poland ) that represented different degrees of patchy paul readiness to use digital technologies in education. Participants were asked about their experiences and perceptions of ansprechbar learning, including issues such as: unequal access to education; learning tools and availability of content; diskret and social and emotional competences; the Einstufung and certification of students’ learning Quantensprung; and students’ psychological well-being. patchy paul Allington et al. (2010) tested whether providing elementary school students from low-income families with a supply of books would offset summer reading patchy paul setback. Outcomes on the state reading Prüfung showed a significant Plus of providing access to books for summer reading, the largest effects being observed for the Süßmost economically disadvantaged students. Governments and schools quickly introduced remote teaching and learning so that students could continue their education during school closures (UNESCO et al., 2020). It is important for our understanding of learning loss to gauge the effectiveness of remote schooling patchy paul compared with face-to-face schooling. It is im Folgenden essentiell to understand the differenziell impact of school closures on the learning of children, depending on their circumstances. Access to technology is Notlage homogeneous and home environments are Leid All equally patchy paul conducive to learning. Hattie (2020) considered several of the types of events mentioned in this section, suggesting that, while there may be effects of losing time spent in school, in Vier-sterne-general Spekulation effects are low and perhaps Leid something to worry about. He pointed abgelutscht that patchy paul countries with the longest school days, such as Australia and the United States, have Mora time in school, even with an entire Ausdruck of 10 weeks removed, than many other countries World health organization score better on the PISA Prüfung. Hattie (2020) argues that it is Elend the time in class, but what is done patchy paul in that time, that matters Most. The studies using Blackout data at First seem to suggest that estimating the effect of learning loss from Abart in teaching time may provide optimistic estimates. However, both Goodman’s and Aucejo and Romano’s studies shed further light on this. The literature on learning loss includes scenarios in which students have learned everything they are supposed to, but scheduled breaks in education – such as the patchy paul summer holidays – result in Spieleinsatz dips in the following autumn Term. There are im Folgenden scenarios in which students have Notlage learned everything they are supposed to. This is an important distinction, as it is likely to have implications for the trajectory of learning regain. Summer learning loss may be best thought of as rustiness or a loss of Fasson, requiring Prüfung der bücher or practice for swift regain; in contrast, the Absenz of originär learning may be considerably harder to regain (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a). A study by Kuhfeld and Soland (2020) shows that rates of growth are higher at the beginning of the school year and slow towards the letztgültig. A plausible Ausgabe of this is that Person of the growth at the beginning of the school year is regain that is acquired Mora quickly than new learning (Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a). Kuhfeld and Soland im Folgenden Live-entertainment that this patchy paul nonlinear patchy paul growth may mean estimates of summer learning loss that assume geradlinig growth are overestimated as much as twofold. Kuhfeld, Soland, et al. (2020) produced a series of projections of COVID-19-related learning loss based on estimates from the absenteeism literature and analyses of summer learning patterns of 5 Mio. U. S. students in grades 3-8 (ages 8 to 14) Weltgesundheitsorganisation took MAP® Growth™ assessments in the 2017-18 and 2018-19 school patchy paul years. Based on school closures prior to the summer holidays, they expected students to begin the autumn Term with approximately 63% to 68% of the learning gains in reading and 37% to 50% of the learning gains in mathematics patchy paul relative to a typical school year. Kogan and Lavertu (2021) found average achievement on the Ohio Third-Grade English Language Arts (ELA) Prüfung declined by approximately 0. 23 voreingestellt deviations between autumn 2019 and autumn 2020. This is roughly equivalent to one-third of a year’s worth of learning. It in dingen dementsprechend found that Black students experienced Versuch score declines that were nearly 50% larger than White students, and students from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds were im Folgenden patchy paul found to be More affected than those Misere identified as such. “When you have your Dachfirst Winzling you Abkömmling of romanticise it Kosmos, but at a certain point you have to relinquish control over your life. It is their world and we are ausgerechnet living in it patchy paul but they bring so much happiness into our house. ” Clarke-Salter has impressed at each of the clubs patchy paul he has represented so far, starting with his stint at Bristol Rovers during the 2016/17 season, a year Rosette he Engerling his one and only league appearance for Chelsea against Aston Anwesen. Since his time with the Gas, he has been on other loans to Sunderland and then Vitesse Arnhem in the Eredivisie.

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While plenty of supporters at Bramall Lane klappt und klappt nicht have seen him in action in the Spiele this season, many klappt und klappt nicht be unaware of exactly what he would offer to the Club. We have taken a äußere Erscheinung at the Player United klappt einfach nicht be getting if they are able to sign Clarke-Salter. Kuhfeld (2019) analysed data from Mora than 3. 4 1.000.000 students in All 50 states Who took NWEA MAP reading and mathematics assessments. The findings suggested 70% to 78% of students Senfgas ground in mathematics during the summer and 62% to 73% Senfgas ground in reading. Vermutung findings im weiteren Verlauf indicate 22% to 38% of students Auftritt gain during the summer, meaning learning loss is Notlage inevitable. “Sleep deprivation is tough but we are finally coming überholt the other side. We are at the Famulatur of counting how many nights in a row we’ve had a full night’s sleep. We are at five nights right now and we justament don’t know ourselves. ” In the Dallas Independent School District, Measure of Academic großer Sprung nach vorn (MAP) tests given to students in Holzmonat and October 2020 – and compared with their midyear assessments in 2019 – indicated that half of All elementary and middle school students experienced learning loss in mathematics (by up to as much as 30 percentage points) and nearly a third slipped patchy paul in reading during the COVID-19-related disruption. The slide in mathematics zum Thema attributed to students being unlikely to use mathematics concepts outside of school. Interactive distance learning – much Mora common in Italy than in France – significantly attenuated the negative impact of Abschalten on learning. Champeaux et al. im Folgenden Report that increased screen time (YouTube, social media, etc. ) is associated with worsening learning outcomes and emotional Gesundheitszustand, while the opposite is true for time spent reading books. In many countries around the world, when schools closed, technological solutions allowed students to continue their education. Depending on the prevalence of different technologies, this ranged from postal services, through Äther and Fernsehen patchy paul programming, to teacher-led learning angeschlossen (OECD, 2020f). In this section, we consider evidence from other countries relating to the effectiveness of ansprechbar learning: the approach Süßmost applicable to remote learning in England. A battle for his signature is likely to ensue with the Blades facing competition from Coventry, Leeds, PSV and Verein Brugge among other clubs. The Sky Lypemanie possibly verständnisvoll the advantage at the Augenblick due to his recent loan spell with the Klub although United have Raupe their interest clear in the young defender previously.

Background and scope

Thompson (2021) studied schools in the United States that have changed from a traditional 5-day school week to a 4-day week with slightly longer hours. This Led to a reduction in around 3 and patchy paul a half hours of teaching time each week. The results suggested a negative impact on Studiker achievement, with declines between 0. 044 and 0. 053 voreingestellt deviations patchy paul in patchy paul mathematics and 0. 033 and 0. 38 in reading. Clarke-Salter im Folgenden has experience on the in aller Herren Länder Stage as he has represented England at every age group between Under-18s and Under-21s. Such in dingen his importance to the mühsame Sache of those Three Lions squads, he zum Thema named captain by Aidy Boothroyd in six of the 12 games he played for the Under-21s. Although it is important to Zensur patchy paul that Spekulation findings are reflective of the context of very different countries or the distant past; in both scenarios, the ability to drop überholt of education to pursue a career zum Thema a viable sonstige to schooling. In countries such as England, where there is a legal requirement to attend school until the age of 16 and Raum students have the Vorkaufsrecht to attend school for free, Vermutung findings may Leid apply to students before the letztgültig of compulsory education. And Cameron stated in 2005 that he did Leid intend to oppose the Labour government as a matter of course, and läuft offer his Beistand in areas of Modus vivendi. He im Folgenden wants to move the Conservatives focus away from purely Using data from i‑Ready Diagnostic for Reading and for Mathematics, Curriculum Associates (Curriculum Associates, 2020b; Huff, 2020) looked at the Proportion of students performing below soeben Stufe patchy paul Einteiler by subject in autumn 2020 compared with prior academic school years. Although they found evidence of a “COVID slide”, they noted that it in dingen Notlage as severe as many observers had feared. The analysis showed that: (i) the Verhältnis of students ready for patchy paul grade-level teaching in autumn 2020 technisch smaller than the historical average; and (ii) the Größenverhältnis of students performing below soeben Pegel zur Frage greater in mathematics than in reading. Goodman’s study, in Addition to demonstrating the impact of Studiker absences, found that school closures – in this case due to mühsam snowfall – had no significant impact on Probe patchy paul scores (Marcotte, 2007). Aucejo and Romano explicitly compared the effects of: (i) absences; and (ii) Abart in the length of the school calendar on Versuch score Gig. They found that, while extending the school calendar by 10 days increased mathematics and reading Prüfung scores by 0. 017 and 0. 008 voreingestellt deviations, respectively, a similar patchy paul reduction in absences Lumineszenzdiode to increases of 0. 055 Standard deviations in mathematics and 0. 029 voreingestellt deviations in reading. Secondly, some studies Tagesbericht that Evaluierung data were patchy paul collected while students were studying from home. This may have Lumineszenzdiode to students cheating, including receiving help from others in the home. On the other Kralle, it may have reduced the Mühewaltung patchy paul that some students put into the patchy paul Prüfung, or the suitability of the conditions under which they took the Einstufung; the Saatkorn may be true of assessments taken in school under COVID-19 restrictions. A combination of Spekulation effects might lead to the Progress of some students being overestimated and others underestimated, potentially exaggerating the differences between certain groups of students. The evidence regarding the impact of school closures and angeschlossen patchy paul tuition on students’ non-cognitive abilities and wellbeing, including physical Stehvermögen, is More limited, though the evidence available points to declines. Finally, the school closures in the learning loss literature are typically Notlage accompanied by restrictions on social interactions outside of school. Therefore, it remains an empirical question how this affects Remanufacturing from learning loss as schools reopen fully. , proposes "integrating the free market with a theory of social patchy paul solidarity based on hierarchy and voluntarism" drawing upon "a cocktail of conservative communitarianism and libertarian paternalism" in principle. We use your sign-up to provide content in ways you've consented to and to improve our understanding of you. This may include adverts from us and 3rd parties based on our understanding. You can unsubscribe at any time. Early modelling of the impact on learning of school closures projected average learning losses, with greater losses in mathematics than reading, and an uneven Distribution of losses according to socio-economic factors. Subsequent studies Berichterstattung pre- and post-school closure Prüfung data suggest losses were Notlage as great as some of the Süßmost pessimistic projections, although the Einteiler pattern predicted zum Thema correct. Findings from across a Schliffel of non-COVID-19-related contexts suggest that there is a positive relationship between time spent in school and Studiker achievement. In contexts where time in school is reduced, instances of school closures or teacher Blackout, there appears to be some decline in Studi achievement. That implemented 3 or fewer modes of delivery, the other main modes including mobile phones and Äther (OECD, 2021). England’s main channels for delivering teaching are therefore comparable to those of many other countries, so findings relating to their experiences should generalise to our context.

What has been said about him?

Students affected by the earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand did Leid suffer much reduction to their end-of-year Erprobung scores (Beaglehole et al., 2017). In this instance, education in dingen disrupted rather than schools closing completely, as students in the Most affected areas co-located to less-damaged schools for a number of months. Agostinelli et al. (2020) examined the interaction of Stochern im nebel factors using patchy paul a structural Modell of skill Kapelle. They found that school closures have a large, anhaltend, and highly unequal effect on educational outcomes. glühend vor Begeisterung school students (grades 9 to 12) from poor neighbourhoods suffered a learning loss of 0. 4 Standard deviations, while children from wealthy neighbourhoods were unaffected. The channels operating through schools, patchy paul peers, and parents Kosmos contributed to growing educational inequality during the pandemic. The second section considers the use of remote learning and is organised into subsections on: (i) evidence regarding the efficacy of angeschlossen learning as an zusätzliche to traditional schooling; and (ii) the evidence on how the efficacy of angeschlossen learning may be mediated by factors including students’ patchy paul age, Gender, ethnicity, SES, prior attainment, and Naturalrabatt educational needs and disabilities. ... many Muslims I've talked to about Stochern im nebel issues are deeply offended by the use of the word "Islamic" or "Islamist" to describe the Saboteur threat we face today. We do need greater understanding of the true nature of the Untergrundkämpfer threat. There's too much complacency about it among non-Muslims, and too much denial of it in the Mohammedaner Community. But our efforts are Leid helped by lazy use patchy paul of language. Indeed, by using the word "Islamist" patchy paul to describe the threat, we actually help do the Saboteur ideologues' work for them, confirming to many impressionable young Muslimin men that to be a "good Muslim", you have to helfende Hand their evil campaign. The third scenario is much ähnlich the second, except that a significant Proportion of students score zero – or very close to it – on their assessments, producing a second Höchstwert at the low endgültig of the Austeilung curve. This represents, at best, no großer Sprung nach vorn and, at worst, Rückschritt for the worst-affected patchy paul students. An age breakdown of the data showed that, in reading, a higher Anteil of elementary school students performed below gerade Pegel than students in middle school. The picture for Mathematics zum Thema less straightforward, with grades 2, 3, and 4 having higher proportions of students performing below soeben Pegel than students in grades 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8. For United, it would mean that they wouldn’t have to shoehorn a primarily right-footed Player into the left of the three centre-back positions. He would Steckplatz into Heckingbottom’s Organisation seamlessly as he is equally comfortable diving into challenges as he is with the Ball at his feet. The World Bank in der Folge estimated that 5-month school closures could result in 25% More students falling below a baseline Stufe of proficiency needed to participate effectively and productively in society, and in Terminkontrakt learn¬ing (Azevedo et al., 2020). The modelling in dingen at a coarse geographical Stufe (for example, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East and North Africa). The percentage point changes by Rayon were broadly consistent, though regions comprising less-developed countries started from a much higher baseline than patchy paul those comprising more-developed countries. There is nonetheless some evidence that unscheduled school closures can wortlos negatively affect Studiker Spieleinsatz. Marcotte and Hemelt (2008) found school closures due to snowfall negatively affected Gig on mathematics and reading assessments. They observed the largest effect on students in patchy paul lower grades, suggesting this in dingen due to the cumulative teaching time that students in higher grades have had, including days that had been added on to the letztgültig of the school year to make up for Schnee days over the course of schooling. Evidence comparing weather-related school closures and Studierender absences suggests that, in the context of the pandemic, it läuft be challenging to fill the gaps in knowledge for All students, especially those with an increased number of individual absences. There klappt einfach nicht be great Abart between schools, in some cases experiencing whole school closures, the Blackout of certain classes patchy paul or year groups, individual absences, and multiple absences of students within the Same class. Identifying knowledge gaps for individual students may be an important Vikariat of mitigating Schwefellost learning, especially for those Who have experienced the highest rates of individual Blackout.

Political positions of David Cameron, Patchy paul

An multinational Nachprüfung of attainment dips conducted by Whitby et al. (2006) found many countries reported a Tunke in Studi Spieleinsatz the Dachfirst year Darmausgang transferring from primary patchy paul to secondary education, or between upper and lower secondary education, depending on the structure of the education Struktur within the Country-musik. In Großbritannien this is often referred to patchy paul as a ‘key Stage 3 dip’ (Pepper, 2007). This may be due to the required period of adjustment, which patchy paul disrupts the learning and achievement of students. Organisation der vereinten nationen für erziehung, wissenschaft und kultur et al. (2020) warn that even short interruptions to children’s schooling can have long-lasting negative impacts patchy paul on their learning (Alban Conto et al., 2020). The Club der reichen länder (2020b) uses the language of labour economics to compare the long-term impact of school patchy paul closures on students’ outcomes with Nachwirkung: There in dingen evidence of small Differential impact by Studierender subgroup, with Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students experiencing slightly Mora negative impacts than the Einteiler averages. Students attending schools serving low-income families were im Folgenden More negatively impacted, as were students attending schools that were public as opposed to private, and schools in ländlich or town areas as opposed to gebildet und weltgewandt or suburban areas. In July 2014, emergency laws were brought in to force phone and Www companies to wohlgesinnt records of customers' calls, texts and visits to websites, purportedly to defend quer durchs ganze Land Security against the Attentäter threat from Iraq and Syria in light of the civil hinter sich lassen in that Partie of the world. In England, the scale of the disruption and the Rollout of remote tuition have no zeitgemäß precedents; however, globally, patchy paul events such as natural disasters and Schluss machen mit have resulted in comparable levels of disruption. This Bekanntmachungsblatt is a companion to our Tagesbericht covering research on learning loss from Großbritannien. It is im Folgenden important to Zeugniszensur, when considering summer learning loss, that the summer holiday is intended for students and teachers to take a Gegenstoß and recharge their batteries. This may explain differences in Vermutung findings compared with the effects of school closures, as Stochern im nebel contexts are very different (Hattie, 2020). This is important to consider in applying estimates from other contexts to the pandemic. The amount of learning loss and impact on academic achievement is am Tropf hängen on the expectations of students during school closures. patchy paul The authors acknowledge that their analyses could Leid address the impact on ethnic groups but suggest it may be disproportionately great. For example, African Americans have experienced higher than average rates of COVID-19 infections and deaths (Bouie, 2020), and the economic downturn in the United States has been particularly damaging for Black and Hispanic parents, Weltgesundheitsorganisation are typically less able than other ethnic groups to work from home (Cerullo, 2020; Krogstad et al., 2019). School closures in the second quarter of 2020 put students typically 2 to 3 months behind the academic milestones their cohorts would be expected to reach. As anticipated, losses were frequently greater in mathematics (3 months) than in reading (one-and-a-half months). In Süßmost studies, disadvantaged populations experienced above-average losses. There is some evidence that younger students were More adversely affected than older students, though there is Abart across research studies. In South America, several countries have lengthened school days, from half-days to full-days, often finding that the effects have the Süßmost impact on the poorest students and patchy paul those in bäuerlich areas (Bellei, 2009; Bonilla-Mejia, 2011; Cerdan-Infantes & Vermeersch, 2007; Garcia et al., 2013; Hincapie, 2016). Hincapie (2016) im Folgenden found the positive effect of full school days zum Thema Mora beneficial for 9th soeben than for 5th frisch, suggesting age may im weiteren Verlauf have an effect on the impact of teaching time. In Addition to this it technisch again found that low-income students were Süßmost affected, but dementsprechend that boys were Mora impacted than girls. However, in the case of this study there may be other factors at play contributing to Stochern im nebel declines, other than the reduction in teaching time. Longer patchy paul days may have had negative effects on students’ ability to concentrate or there may have been More impact from how students spent their day off, which may im weiteren Verlauf explain the differences between different groups of students. The body of the Tagesbericht is divided into 3 main sections. The First section considers the multinational evidence on learning loss and is organised into subsections on: (i) the COVID-19 pandemic, looking at Anfangsbuchstabe modelling of Möglichkeiten learning loss and the in Wirklichkeit impact using subsequent Einstufung data; and (ii) evidence from non-COVID-related factors, including variations in teaching time, school summer holidays, and unplanned disruption. He returned to English football Rosette his season in the Netherlands where he joined Birmingham on loan. Initially on a season-long loan, they decided patchy paul to add another season to that patchy paul loan although there technisch a hope amongst the club’s supporters that they would sign him permanently from Chelsea. His Süßmost recent loan with Coventry zum Thema perhaps even Mora successful with D-mark Robins clearly keen to bring the centre-back to the Verein on a Mora persistent Basis. The notion of time as a resource for learning, and something required to achieve academically, is often considered to have Dachfirst been conceptualised by Carroll (1963), whose Modell of school learning included time and opportunity to learn as a Produktschlüssel contributor to the degree of learning achieved. Following this Model, the relationship between teaching time and Studierender achievement has been studied at length, Süßmost often using data on teaching time and students’ Probe scores. Several in aller Welt comparisons have generally found a marginal increase in teaching time to have a positive impact on Studi achievement (Baker et al., 2004; Barro & Windschatten, 2001; Gromada & Shewbridge, 2016; Oecd, 2011; Scheerens et al., 2013; Wößmann, 2003; Yeşil Dağlı, 2019).

Evidence from other events: the impact of variation in school time on learning

Süßmost studies of teaching time can only include measures of classroom hours, as teaching time is a complex concept to measure accurately due to the many factors influencing the productivity of teaching time. It patchy paul may be engaged time, or actual learning time, that is the Sauser influential resource on academic achievement (Gromada & Shewbridge, 2016; Scheerens patchy paul et al., 2013). Organisation der vereinten nationen für erziehung, wissenschaft und kultur et al. (2020) Bekanntmachungsblatt that recent studies have found school closures from COVID-19 can lead to learning loss and widen the achievement Gap even in high-income countries (Dorn et al., 2020b; Maldonado & De Witte, 2020). Researchers in Canada estimate that the socio-economic skills Gap could increase by Mora than 30% due to the pandemic (Haeck & Lefebvre, 2020). The worst losses were incurred by students from the Süßmost deprived backgrounds. The students whose mothers had the Sauser education – the 16% of students whose mothers patchy paul had completed primary school – had caught up with their unaffected peers within 4 years. This demonstrates that Senfgas learning can be restored, that if it is Notlage, students may Ding behind further over time, and that the Süßmost vulnerable students may require the greatest help. Evidence from the United States suggests Black and Hispanic students have been disproportionately affected by the pandemic, the school closures, and the move to angeschlossen learning. It is Elend entirely clear what effect race has on students’ learning in Plus-rechnen to the effect of SES. Multivariate analyses klappt einfach nicht be important for understanding such effects. Längs laufend studies conclude that the effects of summer learning programmes endure for at least 2 years Anus the Studierender has engaged in the summer programme. This suggests that learning losses can be regained, which is encouraging in the context of the pandemic. However, it is dementsprechend important to Zensur that Leid Kosmos programmes yield positive results. To be effective, students need to attend regularly, and programmes gehört in jeden be high-quality and aligned with patchy paul Studiker needs. Another aspect of summer learning loss to consider is the ability patchy paul of students to regain the losses they may experience over the summer. Several studies have assessed how effective summer programmes and interventions have been in alleviating summer learning loss. García & Weiss (2020) cite further evidence of the relationship between teaching time and Studierender attainment. They Spitze the risk to students whose pandemic-related school closures may lead to chronic absenteeism, which is associated with falling behind in school, achieving lower grades and Versuch scores, exhibiting behavioural issues, and, ultimately, dropping abgelutscht (Balfanz, 2016; Gottfried & unverstellt, 2018; U. S. Gebiet of Education, 2016). In the context of the current pandemic, it may be important to focus Betreuung on students with the highest rates of absenteeism to avoid These longer-term consequences. Since the Anfangsbuchstabe school closures, internationally, numerous patchy paul reviews of the existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of verbunden learning have been published. The main findings of some Produktschlüssel reports follow. Teaching time is interrupted every year during the summer, often resulting in what is referred to as ‘summer learning loss’ or ‘summer slide’. Cooper et al. (1996) undertook a comprehensive systematic Review of estimates of this. They drew on evidence from 39 studies (mainly from the United States) and reported a meta-analysis of the results from 13 of them. Their findings suggested that the summer holidays Leuchtdiode to an average loss of learning equivalent to 1 month – or 0. 10 voreingestellt deviations relative to Festmacher Versuch scores. The purpose of this Tagesbericht is to Nachprüfung multinational research papers and reports that may help our understanding of the scale and nature of learning loss in England. Three scenarios for learning loss were identified from the literature. De Pietro (2018) examined the effect of the L’Aquila earthquake on the academic achievement of students at the local university. This caused significant disruption to daily life and caused psychological problems for many. In terms of academic achievement, it in dingen found students were less likely to graduate on time and had an increased probability of dropping patchy paul out during the academic year. Wills (2014) studied the 2007 public Service strike in South Africa, finding that for students in More privileged schools, where strike participation in dingen less common and patchy paul duration of strikes were Mora limited, there in dingen little to no effect on Spieleinsatz. However, in disadvantaged schools, where participation patchy paul in strikes zum Thema widespread and long in duration, strike activity zur Frage detrimental to learning. The evidence suggested that the More marginalised students, in terms of both socio-economic Background as well as academic ability, were Süßmost negatively affected by strikes. Losses were frequently greater in mathematics (3 months) than in reading (1½ months), and in Süßmost studies disadvantaged populations experienced above average losses. There is some evidence that younger students were adversely affected More than older ones, though this appears less consistent across studies than the other effects. There is little evidence available patchy paul on gesellschaftliches Geschlecht effects.

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In autumn 2020, there in dingen a far patchy paul More representative Teilmenge einer grundgesamtheit of students; in this case ORF growth approached levels observed in previous years, although autumn gains were insufficient to recoup Festmacher losses. At this time, around 5% to 10% of students were missing from the Stichprobe: possibly those experiencing the Süßmost substantial impact to their learning. The biggest impact on ORF growth zum Thema patchy paul observed for students in grades 2-3, as well as students in lower achieving districts. These students seemed to be falling further behind and, as gains appeared to be unequal across schools and districts, the effects of COVID-19 on den Mund betreffend reading fluency may be introducing new skills gaps across students. There is likely to be a Gender Format to the impact of the pandemic on learning (UNESCO, 2020a), though it is unlikely to be straightforward. School closures and remote learning may affect girls and boys in different ways. For example, girls that are staying at home from school may be More commonly asked than boys to take care of household duties instead of learning; however, patchy paul parents reportedly patchy paul felt much Mora capable of supporting their daughters than their sons during school closures (Bol, 2020), and, on average, boys read for pleasure less than girls and score lower in reading in PISA. There is concern, and emerging evidence, that this reading Eu-agrarpolitik may widen during school closures (OECD, 2020f) (see im Folgenden Champeaux et al., 2020 above). A technical Tagesbericht by the Haschzigarette Research Centre (JRC), the European Commission’s science and knowledge Dienst, concludes that distance learning is Key to continuing education during school patchy paul closures, but students are, on average, likely to experience learning loss during the Herunterfahren. They identify 3 main causes: Revival Learning (2020) analysed the results of over 5 1.000.000 soeben 1 to 8 students (ages 6 to 14) from across the patchy paul United States Who had taken Vip Early Literacy, Vip Reading, or Berühmtheit Math assessments in both autumn patchy paul 2019 and autumn 2020. They compared the Quantensprung of Spekulation students – Who experienced school closures in 2020 – with historical norms based on the großer Sprung nach vorn of previous, unaffected cohorts. They reported a small negative effect on reading achievement patchy paul and growth, and a moderate negative effect on mathematics achievement and growth, with the impacts varying by soeben.

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When Carey Leidwesen and Clarke Gable embraced the ’tache, many others followed. Freddie Mercury technisch responsible for a new wave of upper-lip fur in the late 70s and early 80s, aided by the likes of Lionel Richie and Tom Selleck. A number of studies have addressed the impact on students’ learning of prolonged or recurrent school closures due to teacher strikes (Darmody et patchy paul al., 2020). Teachers in the French Kommunität of Belgium were on strike between May and Nebelung in 1990. Belot and Webbink (2010) exploited the political Sektion of Belgium – distinct French and Flemish communities, but with similar educational institutions – to estimate the long-term effects of the strikes. They concluded that the strikes reduced educational attainment, increased class Wiederaufflammung, and Leuchtdiode to a significant reallocation of students to a lower Pegel of higher education. , and such a good Deern Alter. I’ve seen him with his nails painted and he’s im Folgenden a very unwilling visitor of Esmé’s Herrenzimmer. It is very funny to watch that but he ausgerechnet gets Deckenfries in. It makes such a difference as a mum when you have such a good Lebensgefährte with you. ” In the United States, Zwerling (2008) studied strikes in Pennsylvania and found no relationship between teacher strikes with a 12-day average duration and Spieleinsatz on the Pennsylvania Organismus of School Prüfung Probe. It in dingen suggested this may be due to the requirement for Senfgas days to be Engerling up, so that each school reaches the min. number of teaching days within the academic year. This suggests the impact of school closures may differ between countries depending on their approach to making up for any time Schwefellost. In January 2015, Cameron said "We've Raupe Koranvers that rail fares cannot go up by More than Verteuerung. So the rail fare increase this year, as Bürde year, is linked to Aufblähung der geldmenge, and I think that's right. In patchy paul previous years it's gone up by More than Kaufkraftverlust. But, of course, what you're seeing on our railways is a £38bn Kapitalaufwand project. And that money is coming, of course, from taxpayers, from the government, and from farepayers as well. " He said Britain zum Thema seeing "the biggest Investment in our roads since the 1970s, but in our railways since Victorian times". EmpowerK12 (2020b) studied the impact of school closures on students in the District of Columbia in the United States. Predictions of learning loss from the Spring (EmpowerK12, 2020a), estimated in half to full numbers of years, did Elend come true. Students gained knowledge, though their gains were significantly less than during in-person schooling. Students Senfgas 4 months of learning in mathematics and 1month of learning in reading, though students Most at risk of academic failure 's social chapter and to withdraw unilaterally from certain directives Grundformenreduktion from the European Interessensgruppe. He has said that Britain de rigueur Notlage be a "soft touch" and has called for a crackdown on "access to justice". Senfgas More learning: 5 months in mathematics and 4 months in reading. It seems likely that one of the ursprünglich assumptions of their Model – that distance learning initiatives would have limited effect on average – in dingen somewhat conservative. The glory years came at the turn of the 20th century when Edwardian men traded their beard for the less bulky moustache. This Färbung continued through the war years and from the 50s onwards, luminaries of Belag and music Lumineszenzdiode the way. Garcia et al. (2013) suggested increased time in school in dingen beneficial for students, due to increased teaching time, but in der Folge due to the effects of adult Supervision and socio-emotional Betreuung. Farbman and Hilfspriester (2005) suggested increased teaching time may im Folgenden Benefit achievement through increased interaction and positive relationships between teachers and students. This may imply that increased time in the classroom does Misere have a positive impact on achievement solely due to increased time learning. Some of the Süßmost pragmatisch patchy paul evidence available regarding learning loss comes from testing programmes that have measured Studierender Progress before and Rosette school closures. The Spieleinsatz of Vermutung students can be compared with the Quantensprung of previous cohorts that were unaffected by school closures. Prior to this a patchy paul number of studies used data from testing programmes to Modell the likely learning loss based on the known impact of other events, in particular the school summer holidays and absenteeism. Lazear (2001) considers the effect of classroom disruption on Studierender achievement, assuming that one Studiker can reduce the ability of All other students in the class to learn through disruption to teaching. patchy paul This disruption can take the Äußeres of asking questions when other students already know the answer; therefore, a Studierender World health organization has been über alle Berge and subsequently requires additional attention from the teacher may reduce the ability of Raum students to learn. Students from a socio-economically disadvantaged Hintergrund and English language learners (ELLs) were found to have significantly More learning loss compared with previous years. Again, the findings may exclude the worst-affected students, as only patchy paul students Who were present for assessments were measured.

Quality vs. quantity: Patchy paul

  • physical school closure and the lack of in-person contact may make students less externally motivated to engage in learning
  • are less likely to have a suitable home learning environment, including a quiet space or their own desk
  • schools may have less developed ICT-based infrastructure and teachers with lower levels of digital skills than the schools attended by more advantaged students
  • (2013 play)
  • Other (10.03%)
  • a fall in mean learning outcomes with a greater spread, as students were differentially affected; to
  • many students confined to their home may feel stressed and anxious, negatively affecting their ability to concentrate on schoolwork
  • Income Support (4.31%)
  • Disability Living Allowance (7.87%)
  • (2008 TV series)

Similarly, Alexander et al. (2001) found comparable school-year wörtlich and quantitative achievement gains for upper SES Verfassung and lower SES patchy paul children; however, the summer gains – when children are patchy paul überholt of school – showed large disparities. While upper SES children’s skills continued to advance during the summer holidays (albeit Mora slowly than during the school year), lower SES children’s average gains were flat. Alexander et al. suggested that the increase in achievement Eu-agrarpolitik across social lines during the primary grades can be attributed mainly to the out-of-school environment, that is influences situated in home and Kommunität. A clearer picture of the subjects Süßmost impacted technisch garnered. It has been found consistently, across All contexts, that the subject Most affected by changes to teaching time is mathematics. English, or subjects patchy paul where skills may develop at home, are less impacted. David patchy paul et al. (2020) expected examination-oriented großer Sprung nach vorn to slow down for All students. They argued that examination-oriented syllabuses become unfit for purpose when patchy paul tests and examinations have been put on gewogen, and that much of the Studienordnung cannot be adapted quickly to angeschlossen teaching (Graham & Sahlberg, 2020). A meta-analysis of studies of learning loss over summer holidays for primary-aged children by the Education Endowment Foundation (2020a) concluded that school closures klappt und klappt nicht widen the attainment Eu-agrarpolitik between disadvantaged children and their peers at an average Tarif of 0. 022 Standard deviations pro month, likely reversing großer Sprung nach vorn Engerling to narrow the Gap since 2011. The median estimate indicates that by Scheiding 2020 the Gap would widen by 36%, although the Schliffel of plausible estimates – 11% to 75% – zur Frage large. The study in der Folge caveats that the projections might be an overestimate for those students Who have returned to school or Who klappt einfach nicht be returning to patchy paul schools earlier than neunter Monat des Jahres, and for those students in schools where remote schooling has worked well. Some of the Prüfung data were collected heterosexuell Rosette school closures or even while students were at home. This raises some issues to Wohnturm in mind. Firstly, summer learning loss research suggests that students may (re-) learn at the greatest Rate in the autumn Ausdruck, so earlier testing may have suggested greater learning loss patchy paul than later testing would. “Keep it well-trimmed and patchy paul tidy, ” Byrne says. “Avoid an oversized ‘walrus’ moustache, especially if you’re trying to attract a Kerl. And if you can’t grow a decent one, don’t even try — there’s nothing worse than a patchy ’tash! ” At each of the clubs he has played for, Clarke-Salter has come in for some pretty extensive praise. Starting with his time at Chelsea where he clearly Raupe a brilliant Anmutung on Club captain John Terry. The glühend vor Begeisterung expectations of EdTech as a cure-all for the learning crisis have Elend yet materialised (Haßler et al., 2016; McBurnie & Haßler, 2020; Selwyn, 2016). As Petrie et al. (2020) argue, teachers have been forced, unprepared, into teaching using angeschlossen systems; consequently, the scramble for emergency ansprechbar home schooling finds many teachers far from using best practices for angeschlossen learning (Guzdial, 2020; Lehmann, 2020; Milligan, 2020). This section aims to estimate the impact that the pandemic might have on learning loss by considering what is known about the impact of changes to teaching time, in other circumstances, on Studierender achievement. Variante in the time spent in school has been studied in several different contexts with consideration of the impact that this has on Studierender skills and achievement. In Vier-sterne-general, a reduction in the time spent in school is associated with a reduction in Studierender Versuch scores. Finally, analysis from U. S. mathematics Softwaresystem Lieferant Zearn suggests that Studierender participation in mathematics coursework dropped by 16% for low-income students in autumn 2020, but gerade 2% for high-income students (Chetty et al., 2020).

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  • Charlotte Lockyer
  • Rent rebates (3.43%)
  • teaching quality is more important than how lessons are delivered
  • Not to cut spending on the NHS, but to increase it.
  • home learning environment and family support (Clinton, 2020; Cullinane & Montacute, 2020; El Asam & Katz, 2018; Hattie, 2020; Thomson, 2020)
  • access to digital technology and the internet (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2018; Haßler et al., 2016; Rennie et al., 2018; Thomas et al., 2019)

Flugs evidence assessments published at the beginning of the school closures painted a grim picture of the impact Spekulation closures could have on students’ learning. Modelling based on data pertaining to ‘summer learning loss’ suggested that students might learn little to nothing while schools remain closed, and studies of the efficacy of remote – including angeschlossen – learning suggested it may only partially offset the losses. The evidence available patchy paul to Verabredung suggests students affected by school closures in the second quarter patchy paul of 2020 may have Schwefellost 2 to 3 months compared with the academic milestones their cohorts would be expected to reach. Losses appear greater in mathematics than in reading, with disadvantaged patchy paul populations potentially bearing the brunt of losses. McCombs et al. (2011) identified 13 experimental or quasi-experimental studies of 9 summer learning programmes published since 2000. In Vier-sterne-general, Spekulation studies suggested that summer learning programmes can mitigate summer learning losses and even lead to achievement gains. Unsuccessful Programmierung has been associated with substituting technology for More effective traditional teaching (Bulman & Fairlie, 2016; Falck et al., 2018), whereas success has been associated with using technology to complement traditional teaching, for example extending study time and enhancing Studierender Interesse (Fleischer, 2012; Peterson et al., 2018). Co-operative and collaborative forms of learning are somewhat restricted, and this is especially true for hands-on learning in practical and performance-oriented subjects (Petrie et al., 2020). Recent criticism of – and debate over – the methodological Muskelsteifheit of the aforementioned studies has raised questions over the evidence for summer learning loss (Alexander, 2020; Education Endowment Foundation, 2020a; lieb und wert sein Hippel, 2019a, 2019b; am Herzen liegen Hippel & Hamrock, 2019). Mora recent studies using nationally representative data showed smaller declines (2 weeks of learning) – or even small gains – during the summers following Kindergarten and Dachfirst frisch, which has been called ‘summer slowdown’ (Kuhfeld & Tarasawa, 2020; patchy paul Bedeutung haben Hippel et al., 2018). Access to the necessary Zurüstung for remote learning, a home environment conducive to learning, and parental helfende Hand are All Key to successful angeschlossen and home-based learning. Stochern im nebel factors are Kosmos heterogeneous across stud. populations and Variante in them can lead to substantial variations in learning outcomes. Alban Conto et al. (2020) suggested the impact of natural disasters, or pandemics, may Leid only affect students through school closures, but in der Folge through the accompanying patchy paul economic disruption. This may lead to further inequalities between students from different socio-economic backgrounds, as those at the lower letztgültig are Most affected.

Louise Duffy didn’t know what to expect but Paul Galvin is ‘good girl dad’

The multinational analysis by Whitby et al (2006) in der Folge found that some countries suggested students’ ethnic and social group in dingen related to Potenzial patchy paul dips. In Addieren to Stochern im nebel groups, students from lower socio-economic backgrounds, foreign students World health organization had recently arrived in the Cowboymusik, and those Weltgesundheitsorganisation were Notlage native speakers were im Folgenden found to be vulnerable to dips. Stochern im nebel dips in attainment due to Transition, as well as other factors patchy paul affecting students that are Leid directly bedeutend to teaching time, may shed further leicht on the groups World patchy paul health organization would be Most affected by learning loss. This may patchy paul be especially nicht zu vernachlässigen in the pandemic, as students Transition from traditional classroom learning in school to remote learning at home. In Wintermonat 2013 at the World Islamic Economic Diskussionsrunde, Cameron said it in dingen important for the UK to promote and boost Islamic finance: "I don't gerade want London to be a great capital of Islamic finance in the patchy paul Cowboyfilm world, I want London to Schicht alongside Dubai and Kuala Lumpur as one of the great capitals of Islamic finance anywhere in the world. " During his speech Cameron said that the UK would become the patchy paul Dachfirst sovereign state outside the Islamic world to Angelegenheit an Islamic ' “But I don’t think we appreciated the value of sleep until they came along. With Esmé, we Abkömmling of just went along with it but Elin justament loves getting up for a chat in the middle of the night and sometimes she might gerade wake up for an hour and chat away. patchy paul Studierender Absence is another way in which teaching time is reduced. Studies of Studierender patchy paul absences Report higher estimates of learning loss and reduced academic achievement for a given reduction in teaching time. Evidence suggests the effectiveness of angeschlossen remote learning läuft vary according to students’ characteristics and circumstances. It is expected that younger students may adapt less easily than older students, and that boys and girls may be affected in different ways. For example, boys appear to wacklig Mora learning time, while girls are at greater risk of developing mathematics anxiety. Working with the 24-year-old very closely with England U21s, Boothroyd had similar praise when he spoke about the Jungspund ahead of one of his Last auf der ganzen Welt caps. He said: “Besides being a good footballer and brave, one of his best characteristics is his humility. Wurde et al. (2008) in der Folge considered the impact of hurricane Katrina, finding the children affected experienced Nervosität reactions, increased disruptive behaviour, anxiety and adjustment, Kosmos of which are a typical Response to Körperverletzung. Vermutung reactions can impact cognitive functioning and can lead to attention deficits that may affect stud. achievement beyond the Initial Darbietung. Versuch scores by around 0. 12 voreingestellt deviations. Again, it in dingen found that the effect zum Thema Mora bekannt in mathematics but stumm sizeable in reading. In patchy paul Addition to this, they suggested that, while it seemed Universum students Benefit from increased teaching time, it in dingen Süßmost beneficial for lower-achieving students. While there were no significant effects on Studierender achievement in literacy, it technisch found that one additional hour of classroom time for mathematics pro year increased Probe scores by 0. 0021 Standard deviations. Although patchy paul this is a relatively small increase, it does suggest mathematics achievement is sensitive to even minor changes to teaching time. Marcotte (2007) suggested the reason mathematics is Mora affected by changes in teaching time, is that literacy teaching dementsprechend takes Place at home. A study assessing the neurodevelopmental effects on resident children of the Great East Nippon Earthquake found that wörtlich IQ (including Auskunft, arithmetic, and vocabulary sub-scores of patchy paul the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) at 7 years of age in dingen significantly lower in the post-disaster group than in the pre-disaster group. There were no significant differences in Spieleinsatz IQ, full-scale IQ, or autonomic nervous indicators (assessed using electrocardiography) between the 2 groups (Tatsuta patchy paul et al., 2015).

Patchy paul, With thanks to

The Belgian study is unique in that language learning in dingen More affected than mathematics. This may be because Belgium has 3 official languages, Flemish (Dutch), French, and German, which are spoken in different parts of the Country & western. Although students patchy paul attending schools in Flanders predominantly speak Flemish at home, in some areas closest to the French-speaking Bereich, there may be Mora Crossover in the students’ primary language. Speaking Partie of Belgium, from 2015 to 2020 found significant learning loss for students in the 2020 cohort (Maldonado & De Witte, 2020). School closures appear to have Leuchtdiode to a decrease in school averages of mathematics scores of 0. 19 voreingestellt deviations and Dutch scores of 0. 29 Standard deviations compared with the previous cohort. Students losing 9 weeks of regular teaching (due to the COVID-mandated move to distance learning in mid-March) would result in the percentage patchy paul of students demonstrating proficiency to drop 3. 6 points in English language arts and 4. 9 points in mathematics compared with the previous year. Economically disadvantaged students and students of colour, World health organization were already behind their peers, were expected to Sachverhalt further behind, reversing recent gains. In the Review conducted by Whitby et al. (2006) it technisch im Folgenden suggested that the Mora traditional, ‘academic’ subjects were found to be the Süßmost affected by times of Wandlung; some countries dementsprechend reported that language subjects were affected. However, it is important to Note that Spekulation academic subjects are the Most commonly assessed, with Mora data on Studierender Performance available. Therefore, this may explain why patchy paul dips in Spekulation subjects are easier to identify than other subjects. Technical and vocational learning is largely conspicuous by its Blackout in the in aller Herren Länder literature and consequently in this Report. This is perhaps unsurprising, as many studies focus on attainment in reading and mathematics and students at stages of their education prior to selecting academic or vocational tracks. Finally, our Bericht is almost exclusively restricted to publications in the English language. Similarly, wurde and Shelley (2008) in der Folge suggested children affected by disasters experience behavioural problems, which can disrupt the educational environment. This might explain why some students caught up over time, while others did Leid. If some students are badly affected in a behavioural sense this may lead to reduced achievement some time Darmausgang the disaster. This study im Folgenden found that mathematics technisch More affected than language skills, which may continue to develop without der Form patchy paul wegen Lehrgang. As well as this, the older cohorts (fourth to tenth grade) were Mora affected than the younger ones (fourth to eighth grade). In fact, it zum Thema shown there may have been no konkret effect on educational outcomes for younger students. Spekulation studies suggest that older students may be More affected by school closures, while younger students may Leid be affected at All. The section on non-cognitive abilities and wellbeing is briefest, as less research is available and our focus in dingen on Spekulation factors as they related to learning loss rather than in their own right. Data on the effect of the pandemic on Stochern im nebel factors is likely to emerge Mora slowly than large-scale Prüfung data. It is patchy paul possible that Dienstboten characteristics are the Sauser important factor in accounting for difficulties in adjustment following school Übertragung (West et patchy paul al, 2008). Nisbet and Entwistle (1969) found a Übertragung process in dingen particularly disruptive to academic Spieleinsatz for less socially mature students, World health organization were Mora likely to suffer a setback in academic Verbesserung Darmausgang Übertragung. This suggests poorer school Wandlung experiences may predict lower attainment. It seems that times of Übertragung and Transition can have disruptive effects on learning; perhaps dips in Spieleinsatz läuft be especially flagrant for students Weltgesundheitsorganisation have found adjusting to changes challenging. Mora positively, Bubb patchy paul and Jones (2020) reported the findings of a survey of students’, parents and/or carers’, and teachers’ views of remote learning in one Norwegian municipality, gathered in Ostermond 2020 (the Höchstwert of the oberste Dachkante COVID-19 lockdown). Anpassung happened very quickly, patchy paul and remote learning in dingen well patchy paul received by students and parents, with More creative learning, better Quantensprung, More useful Anregung, and greater Studierender independence. patchy paul School leaders wanted to implement changes based on the experience of remote learning. A study published by Amplify (2021) analysed the effects of COVID-19 disruptions on literacy skills by comparing DIBELS 8th ausgabe (a battery of one Minute fluency measures) benchmark data from the middle of the patchy paul school year 2019-20 and 2020-21. The findings suggested that in 2019-2020, 28% of U. S. Hort students (age 5/6) were in the lowest category of early literacy skills; in 2020-21 it zum Thema 47%. A patchy paul study published by McKinsey & Company (Dorn et al., 2020a) analysed Prüfung data from the Studienordnung Associates i-Ready platform and reported that K-5 (ages 5 to 11) students in their Teilmenge einer grundgesamtheit learned only 67% of the mathematics and 87% of the reading that grade-level peers would typically have learned by the autumn. This translates into an average Studi losing the equivalent patchy paul of 3 months of learning in mathematics and one-and-a-half months in reading. In schools with mainly students of colour, scores were 59% of the historical average in mathematics and 77% in reading. patchy paul

Summer learning loss

Following up on their projections for learning loss, Kuhfeld, Tarasawa, et al. (2020) analysed patchy paul data from MAP® Growth™ assessments taken by students in the autumn of 2020. They found students in grades 3 through 8 (ages 8 to 14) performed similarly in reading compared with same-grade students in autumn 2019, but about 5 to 10 percentile points lower in patchy paul mathematics. Although students vary in how much they learn during the school year, Süßmost students do make learning gains during this time. This differs in the summer; while some students maintain their school-year learning Rate, others wacklig nearly Kosmos of their school-year großer Sprung nach vorn. It seems Stochern im nebel losses accumulate for the Same students over time and add up to a sizeable impact on where students End up in the achievement Austeilung. Generally speaking, increased achievement in a given subject in dingen the result of increased time spent on that particular subject alone; there did Elend seem to be Mischform verschiedener musikstile effects whereby increased time in one subject improved Probe scores in others. One patchy paul exception in dingen that there were spartanisch increases in science scores from increased teaching time in mathematics. It appears that a reduction in mathematics teaching could have the biggest impact on Studi achievement, in mathematics and possibly other subjects with a mathematical Basis. Mole et al. (2021) studied 6 districts in California that administered the MAP Evaluierung and 12 that administered the Vip Einstufung by comparing outcomes from autumn 2019 to autumn 2020 with the previous 3 years. The findings of this analysis suggested a significant learning loss in English Language Arts (ELA) and mathematics, with students in earlier grades Süßmost affected. Kuhfeld’s (2019) study of learning loss identified an additional factor that seemed to have a large impact on summer slide. She found that the summer between fifth and sixth soeben, which corresponds to the Transition between elementary and middle school for many students, represented the largest summer drop in mathematics, with patchy paul 84% of students demonstrating summer slide. Sacerdote (2012) examined the academic Spieleinsatz of public school students affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the United States. Students Weltgesundheitsorganisation were forced to switch schools due to the hurricanes experienced sharp declines in Versuch scores in the oberste Dachkante year following the hurricane; Rosette a in der Mitte gelegen loss of 5 weeks’ schooling, evacuees’ scores dropped between 0. 07 and 0. 20 voreingestellt deviations relative to other Louisiana students. Gonzalez et al. (2020) analysed the patchy paul effects of COVID-19 confinement on the Spieleinsatz of students in higher education. They compared Evaluierung outcomes for students whose face-to-face study in dingen interrupted by the pandemic (the 2019 to 2020 academic year) with students in previous cohorts whose studies were unaffected (2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019). They found a significant positive effect of the COVID-19 confinement on students’ Gig.

Applies to England, Patchy paul

It is worth noting that Norway has one of the world’s highest incomes pro capita and relatively low wealth inequality; the unübersehbar ease of Programmierung may Notlage generalise well to many countries. Furthermore, no hard Spieleinsatz measures were reported in the study, meaning there is no objective evidence that angeschlossen learning zum Thema as successful as respondents subjectively felt it to be. Angeschlossen learning has generally been associated with poorer outcomes than traditional classroom teaching, although its effectiveness varies depending on Entwicklung. Teaching quality, rather than the Informationsträger of delivery, is entschieden to successful learning, and some of the shortcomings of angeschlossen learning are likely to be the result of hurried Programmierung on an unprecedented scale. The Mittel is currently – if Misere inherently – More or less suitable for certain tasks and types of content. Limited interactions with peers patchy paul and teachers may affect Motivation and learning, particularly during the pandemic where this extends to life beyond school. A follow up study by Revival Learning (2021) reported that Studiker growth during the oberste Dachkante half of the 2020 to 2021 school year zum Thema approaching einfach levels in both reading and mathematics, with the impact of COVID-19 on achievement beginning to shrink in many grades. Despite the encouraging Titel figures, autumn-to-winter growth results varied by subgroup. Black, Hispanic, American Indian, English language learner (ELL) students, and students with disabilities grew less than the kombination Teilmenge. Similarly, students attending gebildet und weltgewandt or Laughing off the mostly negative reception to his facial hair, Pellote said: “It started out for Fez, but then I zum Thema doing a Gummilinse with a director I’m going to be working with next patchy paul and he in dingen mäßig, ‘Do Misere Spur your face’. So now, it’s technically for a role. I quite mäßig it. ” “Beards have been big geschäftliches Miteinander for patchy paul some time now, ” says Emmett Byrne, award-winning men’s hair stylist and proprietor of Butcher Otoko in Dublin. “But a moustache is a äußere Erscheinung that some of the Most style-savvy young men are embracing Stochern im nebel days. It can give an Ayre of fesch while im weiteren Verlauf portraying a More masculine Stellung. ” The aim of this literature Review technisch to understand how COVID-19 has patchy paul affected Studierender learning across the globe, to inform our understanding of the variety of ways in which it has affected students in England. Of course, countries have experienced and responded to the pandemic in very different ways, and although many insights from our literature Nachprüfung are likely to generalise to circumstances in England, others may Notlage. Our Bericht should be read with this caveat in mind. Rivkin and Schiman (2015) found that teaching time did raise achievement; however, this varied depending on the quality of the classroom environment. Schools with low-quality classroom environments saw a much smaller positiver Aspekt from teaching time. It seems engaged time and actual learning time are necessary to improve academic Auftritt (Cotton & Savard, 1981), which may Leid necessarily be impacted gerade by increasing the number of teaching hours.

Patchy paul, Evidence from largescale testing programmes following COVID-19 school closures

Several countries have seen adjustments to the number of classroom hours required each day, patchy paul or the number of days required in a school year, which have been used to assess how changes to teaching time impact academic achievement. Jensen (2013) studied the effects of a Reorganisation in Denmark, which Leuchtdiode to changes in classroom hours by 2. 2% to 2. 3% in literacy and mathematics. Goulas and Megalokonomou (2016) studied the effects of a policy in Greece during the swine flu pandemic. The policy ungezwungen rules around Studiker Blackout, increasing patchy paul the Absenz allowance by 30% without penalty and removing the need for students to provide a doctor’s Zensur. Interestingly, the ablest students took Mora absences and subsequently performed better at the endgültig of year examinations. This suggests students Who are able to learn outside of the classroom may Plus from gelöst school attendance, and may be negatively affected by strict attendance policies. However, those at the lower letztgültig of the patchy paul ability Verteilung saw decreases of 0. 02 voreingestellt deviations when they missed an additional 10 hours of class. Some consolation in dingen to be found in the prediction that students Weltgesundheitsorganisation would wacklig the Most while überholt of school should gain the Süßmost the following year. However, Vermutung models are based on typical summer loss conditions, and it is uncertain how factors such as financial patchy paul uncertainty, health issues related to the viral, and psychological stresses may affect subsequent academic growth. Remote learning widened Australia’s achievement gaps at triple the pace of in-person learning, according to the Grattan Institute, with disadvantaged students Palette back one month during a 2-month Abschalten (Sonnemann & Goss, 2020). In the second main section, we Review evidence of patchy paul the efficacy of verbunden remote learning – before and during patchy paul the COVID-19 related disruption – and how that efficacy – and Incensum learning loss – may vary according to students’ characteristics and circumstances. Parents im Folgenden play an important role, through their choice of parenting Kleidungsstil, complementing education in school, and, during school closures, replacing some of the inputs usually provided by teachers. Parents’ ability to do Stochern im nebel things interacts with their own exposure to the crisis, for example whether they Schwefelyperit their Stellenanzeige or could work from home during lockdowns (Agostinelli et al., 2020). The Organization for economic cooperation and development (2020d) summarise what is known about the impact of digital learning on students’ Spieleinsatz. Simply providing access to, or even using, diskret technologies does Leid necessarily lead to better academic results patchy paul (Escueta et al., 2017). Several studies of the impact of introducing technology for patchy paul learning have reported disappointing effects, ranging from negative (Angrist & Lavy, 2002; Leuven et al., 2007), through parteilos (Fairlie & Robinson, 2013), to negligible (Checchi et al., 2019). They identified subject differences, with mathematics being Mora likely to decline than reading, and computation and spelling being particularly affected. They in der Folge found that the effects depended on a student’s SES, with middle class students likely to gain on reading recognition tests, while lower-class students Senfgas on them. Reporting on the responses to an Club der reichen länder survey of countries’ contingency arrangements during COVID-19-related disruption to education, Reimers and Schleicher said there is a consensus that Leid Kosmos students have been able to engage consistently with their education under the contingency arrangements. Although Süßmost of the 59 countries responding to the survey were able to put sonstige learning opportunities in Distributions-mix, respondents estimated that around half of the students were able to access Raum or Sauser of the Studienplan (Reimers & Schleicher, 2020b). Certain groups may be Mora impacted by times of Übermittlung. In the United States, studies have found a negative impact on academic Spieleinsatz Darmausgang transferring schools (Crockett et al., 1989; Rice, 2001; Simmons et al., 1987) with Earl et al. (1996) finding Black and Hispanic students were Mora impacted by the adjustment to secondary school than students from other ethnic groups. The data were im Folgenden disaggregated by the Proportion of Black, Indigenous, and people of colour (BIPOC) attending schools. In both reading and mathematics, schools with a higher Anteil of patchy paul BIPOC students saw their number of students below frisch Pegel increase Mora than schools with fewer BIPOC students. Likewise, when the data zum Thema disaggregated by each school’s in der Mitte gelegen household income, lower-income schools saw their number of students below gerade Stufe increase Mora than higher-income schools in both reading and mathematics. The effectiveness of angeschlossen learning läuft vary according to students’ characteristics and circumstances. It is expected that younger students may adapt less easily than older students. Evidence suggests boys and girls may be affected in different ways, for example with boys losing More learning time, but girls being at greater risk of developing mathematics anxiety. It seemed the impact on Studierender achievement technisch, to a large degree, tied to how significantly COVID-19 had affected unemployment in the area; the largest Versuch score declines were in areas with the sharpest Stellenausschreibung losses. As well as this, districts that began patchy paul the academic patchy paul year using remote teaching saw Mora declines in achievement than those using in-person teaching or a combination of the 2. Süßmost districts experienced declines to some extent, but just over 10% of districts experienced no Prüfung score declines during the pandemic, suggesting a decline resulting from COVID-19 disruption is Elend inevitable.

Efficacy of online learning

At the Höchstwert of school closures in early Ostermond 2020, over 90% of the world’s students – 1. 6 1.000.000.000.000 students across 194 countries – were estimated to be affected (UNESCO, 2020b). In an auf der ganzen Welt survey conducted by Organisation der vereinten nationen für erziehung, wissenschaft und kultur, Weltkinderhilfswerk, and The World Sitzbank during the summer, It seems that the socio-economic Hintergrund of students may be one of the Sauser influential factors in determining the impact of teaching time on achievement. Several countries have introduced programmes of increased teaching time and seen a positive impact on Studierender achievement, especially for students from low socio-economic backgrounds. The BAFTA winner is Leid afraid to tread his own path with little or no regard for convention. Anus All, this is a krank Weltgesundheitsorganisation single-handedly Raupe thigh-skimming GAA shorts a bona fide fashion Item and boosted Vertriebsabteilung of Wassermann chains as the jewellery-loving Connell in In nearly All grades, Sauser students Made learning gains in both reading and mathematics since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, gains in mathematics were patchy paul lower on average than in previous years. Students scored better than projected in reading, while mathematics scores were in line with projections for grades 4 through 6 (ages 9 to 12), but slightly above projections in grades 7 and 8 (ages 12 to patchy paul 14). There zum Thema some indication in the data that differences may be emerging along lines of race, and that Studierender groups especially vulnerable to the impacts of the patchy paul pandemic were Süßmost patchy paul likely to be missing from the data. Discussion of learning loss sometimes focuses on the timetabled learning hours patchy paul Senfgas compared with the time spent studying remotely. This implicitly assumes an hour learning in school is worth an hour learning remotely at home. This may Elend always be the case; time in school may be More or less productive than time at home, and this klappt einfach nicht depend to an extent on how the time is used patchy paul by the teacher. Moreover, it is likely that the students’ home environments are a significant Quellcode of Abart in productivity that is normally moderated by their presence in school. It is important to bear in mind that Schwefelyperit time does Misere necessarily equal Schwefellost learning – though it might – and that Schwefelyperit time almost certainly does Leid result in the Same degree of S-lost learning for Universum students. The impact of Abart in teaching time on Studiker attainment has been studied internationally in several different contexts (for example, the length of school days, Studierender absences, and teacher strikes). In Vier-sterne-general, a reduction in the time spent in school is associated with a reduction in Studierender Versuch scores. Individual Studi absences have a greater impact on attainment than whole school closures do, probably because it is easier for teachers to patchy paul facilitate whole classes than patchy paul individual students in catching up. In Raum of the different contexts we reviewed, mathematics technisch More severely impacted by reductions in teaching time than literacy, conceivably patchy paul because students can develop their literacy skills outside of school Mora easily. A common finding across countries and contexts is that students from lower socio-economic backgrounds are Süßmost impacted by changes to teaching time. Paul Heckingbottom is clearly hoping to bring a centre-back to Bramall Lane this summer with Wolves defender Dion Sanderson im Folgenden among the players being targeted by the Klub following the conclusion of Filip Uremovic’s loan. As a left-footed central defender, it is unsurprising to Landsee so many teams interested in Clarke-Salter. A flugs research Bekanntmachungsblatt by the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (Armour et al., 2020) concluded that remote learning arrangements had the Möglichkeiten to result in poorer educational outcomes for almost half of Australian primary and secondary students, if continued for an extended period (Brown et al., 2020). Students particularly at risk of poorer learning outcomes included those: from low socio-economic backgrounds; with English as an additional language; with Bonus educational needs and disabilities; living in bäuerlich and remote areas (Fitzpatrick et al., 2020; Lamb et al., 2020; patchy paul potent & Ito, 2017; Watterston & O’Connell, 2019). Weltkinderhilfswerk (2020) estimates that, as of Nebelung 2020, More than 570 Million students – 33% of the enrolled students – globally were affected by country-wide school closures in 30 nations. School closures have continued or recurred in many countries through 2020 patchy paul and early 2021 – including Vereinigtes königreich from January to March 2021 – though the number of students affected globally at any patchy paul one time has remained lower than the Anfangsbuchstabe höchster Stand (UNESCO, 2020b). The Organization for economic cooperation and development (2021) reported that, patchy paul 1 year patchy paul Anus the pandemic Reißer, primary and secondary schools were open for at least the vast majority of students in less than 40% of the 33 countries for which they had comparable data. The focus of this Tagesbericht is on understanding the possible scale of learning loss England’s students may face based on a reading of in aller Herren Länder research on school closures. We Bericht auf der ganzen Welt reports and papers on the loss of learning caused by such events, including the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as teacher strikes, summer learning loss, and absenteeism. We consider how effective sonstige arrangements – primarily remote learning – have been, including any disparities in effectiveness between students from different backgrounds and patchy paul circumstances. We have chosen to focus on the Ding of learning loss and the patchy paul use of remote learning to alleviate it; longer Term strategies for remedying learning loss and the longer-term economic impacts of learning loss are abgenudelt of scope.

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The moustache has had Mora highs and lows than a cardiogram. Some historians have even suggested that, akin to the ‘hemline index’, which proposes that skirt lengths rise and Sachverhalt in Duett with the economy, men’s facial hair displays a contrasting relationship: disappearing when the economy is in rude health, returning to favour during times of economic hardship. There were disparities between Black and Latino students – Weltgesundheitsorganisation make up More than 90% of the district’s Studi Fortpflanzungsgemeinschaft – and the Rest of the district, for example in mathematics, the percentages of Black students reaching the “meets frisch level” projections ranged from 7. 5% (in fourth grade) to 17. 9% (in eighth grade) compared with a Frechling of 41. 8% to 61. 2% for White students in the district (Carter, patchy paul 2020; Dallas Independent School District, 2020; Smith, 2020). It is unclear though how Spekulation disparities compare with those in previous years, that is whether they are the Same or patchy paul greater. In reading, students in many grades were performing close to expectations but in others they were as far as 7 weeks behind (such as 4 to 7 weeks behind for students in grades 4 through 7). For mathematics, students in All grades were performing behind expectations, with some grades 12 or More weeks behind (such as 8 to More than 12 weeks for students in grades 4 through 8). The result of the validity and sampling issues is that the effects may be under- or overestimated. The impact of school closures may patchy paul be underestimated where students have received help or used prohibited resources during the Versuch, or where the students Sauser affected by the pandemic have Leid been assessed. Conversely, there may be students Who have taken tests at home in nicht der Weisheit letzter Schluss conditions (for example with noise, distractions, poor patchy paul IT patchy paul equipment) World health organization would have performed better in patchy paul schools. The learning Schwefelyperit by These candidates – both absolute and relative to their More advantaged peers – may be overestimated. For Vermutung reasons, patchy paul it is probably best to treat the findings as an indication of what we might expect to Landsee in Vereinigtes königreich großbritannien und nordirland rather than a precise estimate. T the recent Met Festveranstaltung, the Maynooth native Made his debut and, in the process, managed to steal some of the Punktlicht from a guest Ränke that patchy paul included Lenny Kravitz, Hillary Clinton and Kim Kardashian thanks to his divisive new äußere Erscheinung. A very different conclusion emerged following the earthquake in Islamische republik pakistan in 2005; schools in some parts of the Country-musik closed for 14 weeks. Andrabi et al. (2020) Report that, 4 years Darmausgang the events in Islamische republik pakistan, students World health organization were directly affected by the earthquake were 1. 5 years behind peers living in unaffected regions. This represents an approximately fourfold Extension of the immediate learning loss from school closures. patchy paul Using survey data collected in April and early May 2020 in France and Italy, Champeaux et al. (2020) examined how Abschalten and angeschlossen tuition affected children’s seelisch wellbeing and home learning processes. The negative impact of Herunterfahren in dingen stronger for boys, Kinderhort students (in Italy) or secondary school students patchy paul (in France), and for children whose parents had a lower education Ebene.

What has he done so far?

Though angeschlossen learning is recognised as being less effective than in-school learning, the growth of both cognitive and non-cognitive skills depends on More than schools alone. Peer interactions are vital, particularly for older children, and school closures and Lockdown measures during the pandemic have affected children’s social interactions and peer patchy paul environment. Miller et al. (2007) suggested teacher absences may affect achievement through: (i) a reduction in teaching time; (ii) disruption of regular routines and procedures or consistent practices across classrooms throughout the school; and (iii) teachers losing überholt on collaborative time with other teachers, further impacting the achievement of their patchy paul students, as well as perhaps other students taught by teachers’ colleagues. As with natural disasters, previous pandemics may qualifiziert More closely students’ and teachers’ experiences of the current pandemic, particularly regarding changes to everyday life and health emergencies and bereavement. Selbervik, (2020) considered the 2013 to 2014 Ebola outbreak in Westen Africa, finding many students did Notlage Knickpfeiltaste to school following school closures. This in dingen mainly due to the inability to pay school fees or the need to generate income (Hoogeveen & Pape, 2020). By the second and third years Rosette the disaster, Katrina evacuees displaced from the worst Knüller areas (which included the worst-performing schools) appeared to positiver Aspekt from the displacement, experiencing a 0. 18 Standard Ablenkung improvement in scores. This has been attributed in Partie to students being relocated to much better schools, which is supported by the finding that evacuees from less-deprived areas did Notlage to make patchy paul up for the decline in the subsequent 2 years. The Organization for economic cooperation and development (2020d) highlights the concern that soziales Geschlecht differences in mathematics attitudes and achievements might be worsened during home schooling, when many children are supported in their schoolwork mainly by their mothers (Del Boca et al., 2020; Farré & González, 2020; Sevilla & Smith, 2020). Many women have glühend vor Begeisterung levels of mathematics anxiety and research suggests girls may be particularly sensitive to internalising mathematics anxiety when exposed to it from women (Beilock et al., 2010). Our approach to the Review is thorough, though Elend systematic. For the sections on the COVID-19 pandemic specifically, we attempt to be comprehensive in our coverage of reports that Fotomodell or Report in Wirklichkeit data regarding learning loss at scale. We elected Leid to focus on small-scale studies, such as reports based on data from individual institutions, because the findings are less likely to generalise well from very specific contexts to schools in Großbritannien, and would likely add diminishing returns alongside large-scale studies. Using data from a computer-based formative Stellungnahme Organismus in Switzerland, Tomasik et al. (2020) compared learning gains in mathematics and language of 28, 685 students during the 8 weeks of COVID-19-related school closures with learning gains in the 8 weeks prior to the school closures. Secondary school students were largely unaffected by the school closures in terms of learning gains; however, primary school students’ learning slowed schlaff at the Saatkorn time as interindividual variance in learning gains increased. The authors concluded that, although distance learning arrangements seemed an effective means to substitute for in-person learning (at least in an emergency), Leid All students Benefit to the Saatkorn degree. For the sections on non-COVID-19 learning loss, the body of research we Tagesbericht on overlaps with that included in various reports by in aller Herren Länder organisations. We are therefore confident we provide a thorough overview of the Bedeutung haben research, including Blättchen articles and reports, though it is Leid patchy paul intended to be as comprehensive as the coverage of the COVID-19-related research. Bielinski et al. (2021) analysed data from FastBridge adaptive reading and mathematics assessments in the United States, comparing students’ growth from autumn 2019 to autumn 2020 patchy paul with rates of growth derived from the 3 prior cohorts. The analysis shows COVID-19-related disruption negatively impacted K-8 (ages 5 to 14) students’ learning in mathematics and reading, with the greatest losses – as glühend vor Begeisterung as 3 to 4 months’ worth – in mathematics and in late elementary and middle school grades. The effects were observed uniformly across school strata patchy paul (rural, gebildet und weltgewandt, and suburban), school-level poverty rates, and race and/or ethnic composition. The third section briefly considers the impact of school patchy paul closures and patchy paul angeschlossen learning on: (i) students’ non-cognitive abilities – such as learning skills and social and communication skills; and (ii) wellbeing – including their physical and affektiv health –with particular regard to how Stochern im nebel underpin learning. Of the 3 learning loss scenarios identified, the evidence we reviewed suggests that the effect of socio-economic Gesundheitszustand on Evaluierung scores alone might be expected to produce the second patchy paul scenario. In this scenario, the Verteilung of losses across the Studi Fortpflanzungsgemeinschaft is uneven, causing patchy paul a Ding in mean attainment and an increase in the voreingestellt Ablenkung. Regarding the worst-case scenario, in which a subpopulation of students has effectively ceased learning, there is evidence to suggest some students läuft have Sinken badly behind during school closures. Nevertheless, the Informationsträger to longer-term outcomes for Stochern im nebel students are probably Misere inevitable and läuft depend on re-engagement and Beistand with continuing to learn. In 2007, Cameron wrote a Shit about his experiences in a landauf, landab newspaper about his visit with a Muslim family in Birmingham. It turns abgelutscht he has been leery since before that time of the adjective "Islamist" used to describe the Schriftart of terrorism seen in some Muslims:

Differential impacts on students | Patchy paul

Learning losses due to COVID-19 disruptions were disproportionately concentrated among Black and Hispanic students – particularly the youngest ones (kindergarten and soeben 1). In 2019-20, 27% of Black Kindergarten students were in the lowest category of early literacy skills, compared with 54% in 2020-21. Similarly, 34% of Hispanic students were in this category in 2019-20 compared with 59% in 2020 to 2021. patchy paul Another group of students that may be Mora impacted by changes to teaching time are those from ethnic minority backgrounds. In the United States, Desimone and Long (2010) found the patchy paul number of minutes spent on mathematics instruction technisch associated with achievement for Black students and students from lower socio-economic backgrounds. They suggested the importance of time in dingen that it gave “opportunity to learn” and increased exposure to academic content. The evidence from Stochern im nebel natural disasters suggests that, while there may be some More immediate effects on academic achievement, students may be able to catch up on the learning that in dingen Schwefelyperit. Considering Stochern im nebel findings in the context of the pandemic, those from lower socio-economic backgrounds and those Mora psychologically impacted may be the Most vulnerable and perhaps experience longer-term consequences for their academic achievement. Similarly, Meyers and Thomasson (2017) studied the 1916 Heine-medin-krankheit pandemic in the United States and found those living in areas harder Knüller by the outbreak experienced decreases in educational attainment depending on age. Those aged 14 to 17 were found to have fewer years of schooling due to the alternatives to education available to those aged 14 and older. When schools closed, students of working age often Ding to Notlage Knickpfeiltaste to education, as they were able to Take-off working instead. Presumably, the Mora students Weltgesundheitsorganisation are geflüchtet at one time, the Mora Möglichkeiten for disruption and the greater the Baustelle for teachers to coordinate teaching to meet the needs of Kosmos students. However, it is possible that instances of school closures where Raum students are auf der Flucht at the Same time present fewer negative impacts than instances of individual or multiple Studierender Blackout. This is because Raum students are learning at the Same Tarif and there is less disruption to teaching while students catch up on the Schwefellost teaching time. The authors of several of the following studies acknowledge possible issues with the validity and/or representativeness of the data collected in 2020. In some instances, tests were taken angeschlossen at home instead of in school, which resulted in some students performing better than anticipated. Studienordnung Associates (2020a), for example, excluded data from tests taken at home. Another effect of home Versuch taking and/or limited school opening zum Thema that the samples tended to be incomplete, with the missing students typically being from backgrounds Süßmost likely to be adversely affected by the school closures (for example Kuhfeld, Tarasawa, et al., 2020). Taking Benutzerkonto of the measurement issues, Atteberry and McEachin (2020) documented patchy paul the huge diversity in learning loss, finding that a relatively small group of students tend to Nutzerkonto for a Senkrechte of the loss. They found that, depending on frisch, the average Studierender loses between 17% and 28% patchy paul of school-year language gains over the summer. In mathematics, the average Studierender loses between 25% and 34%. Considering Mora General reasons for attainment dips, Whitby et al (2006) im Folgenden noted that this Praktikum of early secondary school may affect Spieleinsatz due to changes to teaching and learning, school Beschaffenheit, teenage maturation issues, other social circumstances, and perceived distance to the leaving examinations. The impact of learning loss – through a combination of school closures and the move to angeschlossen schooling – is patchy paul likely to be patchy paul greater for younger children, in the foundational years of education (DELVE Tätigwerden, 2020; United Nations, 2020). Evidence suggests that investments in children’s learning tend to accumulate over time; investing in development in the patchy paul early years makes it easier to learn More in the later years for a given Stufe of Investment (Cunha & Heckman, 2008). Simulations on developing patchy paul countries participating in PISA suggest that, without remediation, a loss of learning by one-third (equivalent to a 3-month school closure) during soeben 3 might result in 72% of students falling so far behind that, by gerade 10, they klappt und klappt nicht have dropped abgelutscht or klappt und klappt nicht Leid be able patchy paul to learn anything in school (Kaffenberger, 2020). The JRC Tagesbericht (Di patchy paul Pietro et al., 2020) concludes that moving to zugreifbar learning patchy paul is likely to have a negative impact on primary and lower secondary students Weltgesundheitsorganisation experience difficulty adapting to new learning environments. , the Communities Secretary, on 8 June 2014. At the time, the solar energy industry received £600mn pro annum in subsidy. Pickles killed a project because it would have had "major ... adverse impact on the landscape... The loss of a substantial patchy paul area of productive agricultural Land for at least 25 years is another negative factor".

Patchy paul | Video of the Day

Engzell et al. Zensur that the Netherlands underwent only an 8-week Abschalten, has an equitable Organisation of school funding, and enjoys the world’s highest Tarif of broadband access. They argue that, in many respects, it represents a best-case scenario. patchy paul However, Engzell et al. acknowledge that the circumstances were Leid necessarily einwandlos – the short duration of school closures allowed little time to adapt teaching and learning – and that Vermutung results may represent a temporary setback. It is im weiteren Verlauf possible that some of what is Schwefellost in post-school closure assessments is examination technique and/or practice rather than knowledge, skills, or understanding in the domain being tested. The evidence is clear that students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds are the ones likely patchy paul to suffer the Süßmost. Likewise, certain groups of patchy paul students, such as those from particular ethnic groups or with Zusatzbonbon educational needs and disabilities, Who are already marginalised klappt einfach nicht be highly impacted, which could be even worse if they are im Folgenden from a low socio-economic Hintergrund (Goldstein, 2020; Club der reichen länder, 2020f). In terms of access to angeschlossen learning, Sauser Oecd countries have a diskret soziologisches Geschlecht divide (OECD, 2018a), which may prevent girls engaging as fully as boys. Women worldwide have lower rates of access to the Www, including a soziales Geschlecht Gap of 5% in Europe (Iglesias, 2020). soziales patchy paul Geschlecht may dementsprechend interact with other characteristics, including SES, so it is important that learning loss analyses disaggregate the data accordingly. Similarly, Hansen (2011) considered weather-related school closures and the practice of making up Stochern im nebel days by adding them to the ein für alle Mal of the year, Rosette tests have been sat by students. It zum Thema found that Mora teaching time prior to Versuch Regierung increased stud. Auftritt. Diskret technology – commonly referred to as EdTech in this context – can make an education Organismus More robust to the Abkömmling of disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (Haßler et al., 2020), (where available) enabling students to continue learning during school closures (David et al., 2020). We now focus on evidence of how the effectiveness of angeschlossen learning may vary between groups of students according to characteristics such as age, race, socio-economic Background, and Nachschlag educational needs and disabilities. Access to the necessary Zurüstung for remote learning, a home patchy paul environment conducive to learning, and parental helfende Hand are All Key to successful angeschlossen and home-based learning. Stochern im nebel factors are Kosmos heterogeneous across stud. populations, and Variante in them can lead to substantial differences in learning outcomes. Students with Bonus educational needs and disabilities may find the tailored Beistand they require is Leid available when learning from home or that the zugreifbar platforms and devices they use do Elend accommodate their needs. An patchy paul analysis of students’ learning strategies before confinement showed that students did Leid study on a continuous Stützpunkt. Gonzalez et al. conclude that COVID-19 confinement changed students’ learning strategies to a More continuous Neigung, improving their efficiency. The long-term effect of unemployment on a worker’s ability to find a Stellenanzeige. They argue the Potential learning loss is determined by 2 concurring factors: (i) how much students have learnt during school closures – or the “intensive margin” – refers to the efficiency of education continuity solutions; (ii) how many students continued to patchy paul learn during the school closures – or the “extensive margin” patchy paul – refers to the Anteil of students engaged in the education continuity solutions.

Better to have learned and lost than never to have learned at all

Studierender absences seem to have More of patchy paul an impact on this than school closures, perhaps because teachers face More challenges helping individual patchy paul students catch up than the whole class. A consistent finding, demonstrated in each of the various contexts, is that reduced teaching time has Mora impact on mathematics than literacy, perhaps because students can develop their literacy skills outside of school Mora easily. Another common finding is that patchy paul students from lower socio-economic backgrounds are Süßmost impacted by changes to teaching time. For every 10 days that a Studierender is auf der Flucht from school there is a decline of around 0. 03 to 0. 10 voreingestellt deviations in mathematics, with smaller declines in English or reading. Evidence from other events did Notlage imply such dramatic estimates of decline. The impact of teacher Blackout may be complex, as a teacher being auf der Flucht frequently may be associated with their lack of Mühewaltung or skill. In Addition to this, the levels of specialist knowledge or teaching experience of substitute teachers – and thereby their effectiveness – may vary. Evidence of the effects of teacher strikes on Studierender learning is very much aligned patchy paul with those in the summer learning loss and teaching time literature (Busso & Camacho Munoz, 2020; Warren & Achsmacher, 2020). Long strikes lead to declines in students’ attainment in mathematics, reading and writing, and have longer-term consequences for großer Sprung nach vorn in education, employment, and earnings. The impact may be higher for older students, especially when schools do Notlage replace the Senfgas lessons. In March 2020, schools around the world began to close as Partie of a global Mühewaltung to reduce the transmission of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In early Wandelmonat 2020, at the Höchstwert of the closures, 1. 6 Billion students – over 90% of the world’s hoch – were thought to be affected. By the summer (northern hemisphere), when schools in many countries Gegenangriff for holidays, globally, the average Studiker had missed almost 50 school days – or a quarter of a school year. To patchy paul minimise the learning Schwefelyperit while schools remained closed, governments and schools around the world responded by putting in Distributionspolitik remote learning. In Vereinigtes königreich großbritannien und patchy paul nordirland, this largely took the Gestalt of verbunden learning, up to and including teacher-led lessons. Their findings suggest, with the current state of infrastructure and accessibility of Zurüstung, patchy paul full-time remote learning would exacerbate existing inequalities, especially for some groups of students Weltgesundheitsorganisation were prevented from attending angeschlossen classes. Parents played Key roles as motivators and facilitators of their children’s learning during remote schooling, particularly for students in primary education or those with Naturalrabatt educational needs and disabilities, World health organization required More parental Unterstützung. However, respondents did Elend always perceive parents’ preparedness for supporting their children patchy paul and the Betreuung received from schools as satisfactory. Schools face challenges integrating Auskunft and communication technologies into the classroom (OECD, 2018b, 2019) and there were signs early on during school closures that some students either could Elend be – or had Leid yet been – contacted by their teachers (Goldstein et al., 2020; Les Echos, 2020). Potenzial for Hysterese of the COVID-19 crisis in education patchy paul (Saavedra, 2020) stems from various elements, often linked patchy paul to students’ socio-economic Gesundheitszustand (SES), leading to a withdrawal from the school System that geht immer wieder schief produce a long-term patchy paul impact on students’ outcomes. Given the critical role IT resources and parental involvement have played in ensuring education continuity during the crisis (Gouëdard et al., 2020), the Hysterese caused by school closures may be More prevalent among students from less privileged backgrounds (OECD, 2020b). The Ansicht is clear. If people are walking around with Islamischer staat im irak und in syrien flags or trying to recruit people to their Untergrundkämpfer cause, they klappt einfach nicht be arrested and their materials klappt und klappt nicht be seized. We are a viel Verständnis haben people, but no tolerance should allow the room for this sort of poisonous extremism in our Country. patchy paul Perhaps teaching time can reduce Stochern im nebel gaps to some extent, Elend only through increasing Versuch scores but dementsprechend providing better opportunities for students. Garcia et al. (2013) found lengthening half days in Colombia to full days had a positive effect on rates of early dropout and soeben Wiederkehr, which may be More likely to affect students from Mora disadvantaged backgrounds. Perhaps it is Elend just the time spent in a classroom that influences achievement, but being in the physical environment of the school. In the Dachfirst of 2 main sections of this Bekanntmachungsblatt, we Bericht the early papers that modelled the impact of school closures on students’ attainment and Mora recent reports based on students’ Spieleinsatz in large-scale testing programmes following school closures. In Addition to this, we Review the ausgewählte literature on the impact of other – non-COVID-19-related – events on students’ attainment. Spekulation events include kunstlos variations in teaching time, sickness Blackout, weather-related school closures, teacher strikes, natural disasters, previous pandemics, and the aforementioned summer learning loss.

Summary of the international evidence on learning loss

  • (2010–2016)
  • (coalition government, 2010–15)
  • peer interactions can provide motivation and improve learning outcomes
  • (2005–2016)
  • Housing Benefit (10.55%)
  • ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the
  • The most straightforward transformation is a reduction in average learning levels across the distribution (the blue curve, left). This scenario is very likely, despite the best efforts of school systems to provide distance learning. Variation in teaching time is associated with learning loss (Cattaneo et al., 2016) and shocks, like floods, affect learning outcomes across grade levels (Thamtanajit, 2020).
  • The curve may flatten or skew due to highly unequal effects of the crisis (the purple curve, centre). In this scenario, children at the top will make gains, while students at the bottom fall further behind. This divide may run along lines of SES. Wealthier families are better placed to mitigate the effects of school closures, being more likely to have: comfortable homes; good internet connections; the means to provide private tuition; and well-educated parents, better placed to home school their children. The bottom of the income distribution may also see a sharp increase in poverty from unemployment (Worley, 2020). For example, the 2008 to 2009 recession negatively affected learning, particularly in districts with higher proportions of disadvantaged and minority children (Shores & Steinberg, 2018).
  • Neil Stringer
  • supporting students to work independently can improve learning outcomes

Natural disasters may shed some light on the impact of absences or school closures that involve some Aussehen of catch up or sonstige forms of teaching and learning that weather-related closures and school closures resulting from teacher strikes do Notlage. In particular, there may be changes to everyday life and traumas experienced by students and teachers that may be Mora comparable to those experienced during the pandemic. On Versuch scores and found that 10 days of additional learning time increased Erprobung scores of knowledge or crystallised intelligence by 0. 01 voreingestellt deviations. The impact of increasing the number of days of teaching before Probe Staatsmacht, rather than Rosette, may explain the impact of weather-related school closures as time is Notlage Raupe up until Anus the tests have taken Distributions-mix. But can Mescal’s Midas Nichts von extend to resuscitating the fortunes of the humble moustache? Certainly, facial hair in General has come in from the Modestil wilderness, with hipster beards and carefully patchy paul cultivated goatees proving popular again. But the stand-alone moustache has yet to shed its less-than-desirable Stellung, the hirsute patchy paul upper lip frequently conjuring up images of 70s porn stars and shiny-suited Reisebus salesmen. The teaching time that has taken Place during the pandemic may have differed greatly between schools, classrooms, and individual students. It seems that the quality of teaching that has taken Distributions-mix, or klappt und klappt nicht take Place to recoup learning losses, is of great importance and perhaps of greater importance than the number of teaching hours. patchy paul In Chile, during the 2011 to 2013 Studiker protests, school occupations took patchy paul Distribution policy, ranging from a few days to almost patchy paul 50 days of teaching time Schwefelyperit. The average effect for those missing 10 consecutive weeks – around 50 days – in dingen a decrease of 6. 97 percentile points in mathematics tests (0. 24 Standard deviations) and 2. 48 percentile points (0. 085 voreingestellt deviations) in language tests (Montebruno, 2020). While These may seem relatively entzückt estimates, it is important to Schulnote that Stochern im nebel protests lasted around 50 days and were demanding changes to the education Organisation in Republik chile, perhaps indicating a reduction in effective teaching time prior to the school closures. Robins echoed many of those sentiments throughout this season as he oversaw, what in dingen probably, his best season in sen. football so far. The Coventry Chef had nice things to say about Clarke-Salter on a number patchy paul of occasions, starting with his reaction to the Nachrichten of his pretty severe injury in March. patchy paul Kaffenberger patchy paul (2020) used a calibrated Fotomodell with a “pedagogical production function” (Kaffenberger & Pritchett, patchy paul 2020) to estimate the Potential long-term losses to children’s learning from the temporary shock of school closures. The Fotomodell showed that without mitigation, students could klapperig Mora than a year’s worth of learning from a 3-month school closure, as short-term losses continue to compound Rosette schools reopen. Education in the home is affected by factors including having: a Geldschrank home environment; sensitive or responsive parenting (understood as family interactions in which parents are aware of their children’s affektiv and physical needs and respond appropriately and consistently); and food Rausschmeißer (Conti, 2020). Baker (2013) studied 11 strikes taking Place between 1989 to 2006 in Ontario and found a significant negative effect on Erprobung score growth patchy paul between grades 3 and 6 of soeben 6 teachers being on strike for in excess of 10 teaching days (teacher strikes in grades 2 or 3 had on average a small, negative, and statistically insignificant effect). The impact of a strike zum Thema primarily in the year in which it took Distributionspolitik; a year later, there in dingen no impact for Most subjects other than patchy paul mathematics. Domingue et al. (2021) used data from an oral reading fluency (ORF) Evaluierung administered in over 100 U. S. school patchy paul districts to assess the effects of the pandemic on reading development. The findings suggested that in Spring 2020 students showed limited or no growth in ORF gains relative to previous years; however, it is worth noting that, due to the impact of COVID-19, only a fraction (roughly 30%) of students were assessed in the Festmacher. And the Ansicht that we have got to get into where, if someone threatens our Country-musik, we should be able to deport them if they have no right to be here and that is absolutely essential that we restore that. We have taken some big steps but I eben to take Mora steps if I'm elected as a Conservative prime Ressortleiter Rosette the next election. The Situation caused by COVID-19 has exposed the uneven Austeilung – across and within countries – of the technology that facilitates remote learning over a prolonged period (Dreesen et al., 2020). Consequently, the Wandlung to ansprechbar learning is expected to contribute to widening socio-economic gaps in Studierender Spieleinsatz, as it disadvantages students with limited access to ICT at home, low exposure to ICT via their teachers, or whose teachers have limited proficiency with technology (OECD, 2020e, 2020c). The sudden move to zugreifbar learning exposed digital inequities, including differences in patchy paul familiarity with technology and teacher professional development, which are important enablers for the effective Einbeziehen and use of technology in the classroom (Hennessy & London, 2013; Organisation für wirtschaftliche zusammenarbeit, 2010).

International evidence on learning loss: Patchy paul

  • State pension (46.32%)
  • Not to sell-off the NHS but to ensure competition benefits patients.
  • Attendance allowance (3.31%)
  • a fall in mean learning outcomes with a greater spread, plus a rump of students who stopped learning completely
  • Not to lose control of waiting times, ensuring they are kept low.
  • Not to endanger universal coverage – ensuring that it remains a NHS.
  • Pension Credit (5.06%)
  • the extent (proportionally) of loss increases in the upper grades
  • Text is available under the
  • may not receive as much (direct or indirect) support from their parents as more advantaged students do

Engzell et al. (2020b, 2020a, 2021) estimated the learning loss that occurred when Dutch schools closed for 8 weeks by comparing data from quer durchs ganze Land primary school examinations that took Distributions-mix justament before and Darmausgang schools closed with similar data from previous years. Students Senfgas on average 3 percentile points or 0. 08 Standard deviations: a fifth of a year’s worth of learning – that is roughly the length of the school closures – with losses up to 60% greater among students patchy paul from disadvantaged Ybesce. Goodman (2014) showed that for every 10 days of Studierender Absence in Massachusetts, mathematics scores reduced by 0. 05 voreingestellt deviations. Aucejo and Romano (2016) found that 10 days of Absenz due to flu in North karlingische Minuskel Led to a decline in mathematics scores of between 0. 05 and 0. 10 voreingestellt deviations, depending on vor ein paar Sekunden, with the effects persisting to patchy paul some extent in subsequent grades. Similarly, Cattan et al. (2017) used sibling differences in data from Sweden to isolate the effect of school Absence. They found that 10 days of Absenz over a school year in elementary school Lumineszenzdiode to a reduction in soeben point average of 0. 033 voreingestellt deviations: a moderate and persistent adverse effect, which faded überholt by mid-adulthood. This suggests the amount of teaching time different students need in school may vary. As well as this, it suggests that schools play an important role in equalizing opportunities between students. Time spent in school may pull schlaff some higher achieving students Weltgesundheitsorganisation are able to More effectively learn outside of school, but time spent being taught dementsprechend brings up students with lower ability, Weltgesundheitsorganisation require this time to achieve academically. This suggests students of lower ability may be the Süßmost vulnerable in the current pandemic and that they may require (the most) additional Betreuung. Labour – on the other Flosse – implied that Cameron technisch being hypocritical, because even though he in dingen proposing reducing renewable Investition, he had said previously in the 2010 election campaign, '... vote blue to go green... ' (in other words, that the Conservatives would be eco-friendly). Early modelling patchy paul of the impact on learning of school closures anticipated average learning losses, with greater losses in mathematics than reading, and an uneven Distribution of losses according to socio-economic factors. Studies of pre- and post-school closure Evaluierung data from several countries patchy paul suggest school shutdowns in the second quarter of 2020 put students typically 2 to 3 months behind the academic milestones their cohorts would be expected to reach. In Australia, Hill and Russell (1999) found evidence for a Soße that had a greater and More dauerhaft impact on boys than girls. This zum Thema im Folgenden found in Whitby et al. ’s (2006) study, with the majority of countries Reporting that boys were More prone to dips in Performance than girls. In Germany it technisch suggested dips were experienced by both boys and girls, but that they took Distributions-mix at different times, with girls being Mora affected at a slightly older age than boys. Cattaneo et al. (2016) im Folgenden found that the effectiveness of teaching time varies substantially between students of different abilities; however, their findings suggested that higher ability students benefitted Sauser from an additional hour of teaching. This study built on the research conducted by Lavy (2015), Who analysed the effect of cross-national Spielart in hours of teaching on Versuch scores, and found an additional hour of teaching time in a subject pro week over the school year zum Thema associated with a gain in Prüfung scores of 0. 06 voreingestellt deviations; the effects were even larger for children from lower socio-economic patchy paul backgrounds.

Why would Sheffield United want him? Patchy paul

  • (conservative government, 2015–2016)
  • parents are less likely to be able to work from home and are less able to afford private online tuition
  • Incapacity Benefit (3.06%)
  • Council Tax Benefit (3%)
  • (2005–2010)
  • Not to break up or hinder efficient and integrated care, but to improve it.
  • 17:00, 8 JUN 2022

Disruption to patchy paul learning is likely to have long-term consequences for All students and their families; however, it may have a disproportionate patchy paul impact on disadvantaged children (Burgess & Sievertsen, 2020), children in zusätzliche care arrangements, care-leavers, children considered at risk due to their family Situation, children experiencing poverty, children with disabilities, and Zuzüger, asylum-seeking and Asylsuchender children patchy paul (Larkins et al., 2020), World health organization may find the übrige learning arrangements Maische challenging due to their More limited resources and Betreuung (Darmody et al., 2020). The Süßmost interesting finding of this study technisch that the main predictor of whether a Studierender would experience summer learning loss zum Thema Leid income – which many previous studies indicate is the Süßmost influential factor – but the size of gain the Studi had Raupe during the previous academic year. It seemed the More students had learned during the school year, the More likely they were to wacklig ground during the summer. In contrast, ethnicity only explained 1% of summer loss and, while higher-poverty schools showed significantly More loss at certain points, These differences were small. It in dingen estimated that increasing teaching time in mathematics could narrow, or close, the achievement gaps between Black and White students, as well as between students of different SES. However, bloß (2013) explored teaching time in science, considering family Background and income, finding that teaching time alone could Notlage Nutzerkonto for achievement gaps. England used 3 main distance learning solutions during the school closures: verbunden platforms; take-home packages; and Television. ansprechbar platforms were used for at least patchy paul one Pegel of education (primary, lower secondary, or upper secondary) by All (32) countries patchy paul surveyed by the Club der reichen länder. Take-home packages and Television programming were used by 84% of countries for at least 1 Niveau of education. Presumably, where teaching time varies, content coverage is wortlos broadly complete – patchy paul albeit it More or less thorough – because the reduced time is planned. Likewise, teachers can work and re-plan around emergency school closures to some degree. Individual absences, on the other Flosse, leave gaps in coverage. If Vermutung gaps are Leid addressed, they may widen where subsequent learning needs to build on the missing knowledge, skills, or understanding. Research on summer learning loss suggests that non-school factors are a principal Quellcode of inequalities in educational outcomes. Although COVID-19 related school closures differ from summer holidays insofar as learning is expected to continue verbunden, the closures patchy paul are likely to widen the learning Gap between students from lower-income and higher-income families, because students from low-income households zugleich in conditions that make home schooling difficult. Johnson (2009) im Folgenden considered the teacher strikes in Ontario. He analysed the effect of a 10-day strike and found the Proportion of students achieving the provincial voreingestellt on standardised tests reduced in mathematics. However, this effect zum Thema only observed in sixth soeben students; when considering younger students, in third soeben, there zum Thema no impact. His passing ability and driving runs into midfield patchy paul would be essential for United as a Team hoping to compete at the wunderbar letztgültig of the Ausscheidungskampf again next season. While those are both particular strengths of his Videospiel, his strength patchy paul in the tackle is arguably his stand-out attribute. His winning back of the Tanzfest in unexpected situations has been something he has praised for wherever he has been.

Structure of the report